Article: A Retrospective Survey of L2 Learning Motivational Changes

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Tsuyuki Miura



This study investigated the long-term L2 learning motivational changes of 196 Japanese university students using a retrospective approach. The participants’ perceived level of motivation and the rank order of their motivational reasons over 7 years were measured using a survey in order to test five a priori hypotheses: (1) The participants’ motivational levels have frequently changed since they started English learning; (2) these levels were affected by entrance examinations in their final years of junior high and high school; (3) the patterns of motivational change between high and low proficiency university students differ; (4) the rank order of motivational reasons has changed over time; and (5) the rank orders of motivational reasons between high and low proficiency university students differ. These hypotheses were mostly supported. The primary findings indicated that the participants experienced frequent motivational changes in their learning experiences and they were strongly influenced by entrance examinations.


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