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Brain-Friendly Learning Tips for Long-Term Retention and Recall

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Jeff Mehring, SEAMEO-RELC, Singapore; Regan Thomson, Kwansei Gakuin University

The main study skills students presently rely on are massed practice, repetition, rereading, and highlighting which cause a false sense of fluency (Bjork & Bjork, 1992). Memory has two strengths, storage strength and retrieval strength, with the theory of desirable difficulty stating that the harder one has to work to retrieve a memory, the greater the subsequent spike in retrieval and storage strength (Bjork & Bjork, 1992; Hattie, 2013). Spaced repetition, pretesting, interleaving, and regular testing are a few study skills that can lead to deeper learning. Incorporating them into teaching as well as showing students how to use them could lead to deeper learning, stronger retrieval, and longer retention. This paper examines these study skills, including examples of how to incorporate them into various classroom activities.

学習者の主な学習スキルは、集中練習、反復、再読、蛍光ペンなどでマークすることだが、これらは学習者が流暢だと思い込む要因となり得る (Bjork  & Bjork, 1992)。記憶力には「保持」と「想起」の2つがあり、「望ましい困難」は、記憶を想起する為に努力すればするほど、結果的に保持と記憶力が増加するという理論である(Bjork & Bjork, 1992; Hattie, 2013)。Spaced repetition (間隔反復)、Pretesting(事前(予備)試験)、Interleaving(インターリーブ:交互配置)、定期試験は、より深い学びに至る学習スキルである。これらのスキルを授業に取り入れ、スキルの使い方を教えることは、より深い学習と学習者の達成感につながるだろう。本論文では、これらの学習スキルをどのように教室の授業活動に盛り込めるかについて具体的に検討する。

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