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英語リスニング力における学習環境の差異:PC教室と普通教室の比較 - A study under the different learning environments for English listening tasks: Comparison of PC-equipped classroom and regular classroom

Page No.: 
159
Writer(s): 
倉本充子, 広島国際大学; 吉田 信介, 関西大学; 吉田 晴世, 大阪教育大学

英語リスニング力における学習環境の差異:PC教室と普通教室の比較 - 
A study under the different learning environments for English listening tasks: Comparison of PC-equipped classroom and regular classroom

倉本充子, 広島国際大学;
吉田 信介, 関西大学;
吉田 晴世, 大阪教育大学

In this paper, we attempted to investigate the following issues: (a) how different learning environments may cause different interactions in classroom; (b) how such differences may affect learners’ attitudes towards listening tasks and test results. We compared the results of tests and questionnaires in two types of learning environments of PC-equipped classroom and regular classroom.
Participants were all Japanese undergraduate university students majoring in English. The experimental group (PC-group) consisted of 116 participants (PCL: lower level group, 51; PCH: higher level group 65), while the control group (regular classroom-group) consisted of 117 participants (RGL: lower level group, 56; RGH: higher level group 61). Materials used in the present study were several series of VOA Special English news. The participants in the PC-group were allowed to listen to the materials recurrently using an application on the individual PC. The application enabled real-time feedback of their performances and their individual ranks in the classroom for their tasks. By contrast, the participants in the regular classroom-group had recurrent but teacher-controlled chances to listen to the same materials and were given overall feedback for their performances. We conducted two types of the same paper tests and questionnaires in both the pre and post phases of this research project. ANOVA, multiple comparison Scheffe and Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis.
As for the fill-in-the-blank tests, the ANOVA repeated Measure detected a significant difference between the pre and post test scores (F (1,231) = 184.77, p = .01), and a significant interaction between two groups (F (1,231) = 45.00, p = .01). The average score of the PC-group was significantly higher than that of the regular classroom-group. As for the TOEIC listening tests, the ANOVA repeated Measure detected a significant difference between pre and post test scores (F (1,231) = 52.84, p = .01), but no significant interaction between two groups. The significant interaction between two groups was detected only for the fill-in-the-blank tests. This means that learning environment with PCs may have impact on learners’ attitudes and improved results of listening tasks at perception level. In addition, the ANOVA repeated Measure among four groups (PCL, PCH, RGL, RGH) detected a significant difference between the pre and post test scores: the fill-in-the-blank tests (F(3,229)=15.231, p=.01), the TOEIC listening tests (F(3,229)=18.10, p=.01). Multiple comparison Scheffe revealed the significant interactions among following groups: the fill-in-the-blank tests :PCH and RGL, RGL and PC/RG H; the TOEIC listening tests: PCL and RG/PC H, PCH and RG/PC L, RGL and RG/PC H, RGH and RG/PC L. This means that learning environment with PCs may have influence on listening performance at perception level (rather shallow cognitive processing level) but not at comprehension level (rather deep cognitive processing level).
Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment detected significant differences on the pre and post questionnaires as follows: two items for the PC-group and eight items for the regular classroom-group. This means that learners’ awareness of their listening skills and learning strategies did not affect the results of the tests. In other words, it was different learning environments that caused differences in interactions in the classroom. In conclusion, learning environment may have affected learners’ learning attitudes. Focusing on less numbers of listening skills and learning strategies in the PC-equipped classroom had a positive impact on the scores of the listening perception test. The learning environment with PCs might have facilitated learner autonomy.

本研究では、学習活動の場である教室内に備えられた人工物(PC)の有無により、学習者が経験する学習行為に差が生じるのか、また、学習者のリスニング力伸長や学習意識に差異をもたらすのかを調査する目的で、同じ教材で同じ教育目標によるPC設置有無の二条件(PC教室と普通教室)での授業を実施し、その影響を検証した。教室環境の差により「課題遂行」と「結果表示」の方法などにおいて教師-学習者間の役割遂行配分が異なり、PC教室ではより学習者中心型の授業を展開し、普通教室ではより教師主導型の授業を展開した。この授業展開の差異がリスニング学習の意識変化に影響を及ぼし、結果としてリスニングの知覚レベル(深い意味判断を要求しない)でのテスト得点増加に影響があり、PC教室群が有意に高かった。教室環境固有の条件-PC教室では自己ペース学習が可能である状況、普通教室では教師主導が生み出す状況-がそれぞれの学習者の着目するリスニング技術や学習方略に影響を与えたものと考えられる。
 

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